News

Which is the most genetic diverse species in the World?

Are there butterflies in 20 colors? Do bacteria that divide every 20 minutes and accumulate genetic mutations in the process? It turns out that the current record holder is a fungus living in rotten wood. Lynx at the other end of the spectrum has almost no genetic diversity, which is bad news for Lynx, because high genetic diversity is beneficial and basically allows organisms to adapt to changes in the environment.

It has a nucleotide diversity of up to 20%. A study published in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution in 2015 proved this. For eukaryotes or organisms with a nucleus, this is the highest genetic diversity ever. In other words, two separate fungi have different DNA bases in about 20 of the 100 positions in their genomes. This has a higher genetic diversity than the previous record holder C. light Brucella, which is reported to have 14 nucleotide species.

According to a study published by Cutter and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in 2013, this ratio was 1%. These species are considered to be very genetically diverse and have a nucleotide diversity of more than 5%. Most plants and animals have nucleotides. By comparison, human nucleotide diversity is about 0.1%, Cutter said.

Split gill fungi with extremely high genetic diversity exist in all continents except Antarctica, so they have a high effective population size. According to a 2015 article, the fungus also has an abnormally high mutation rate, about ten times that of a fetus. Flying fruit flies. The author wrote in his work that both of these factors may lead to a high degree of genetic diversity in fungi.

Cutter added that the effective population is huge, also in the millions, which may explain the excessive diversity of the nematode C. brenneri. This species is found in tropical regions of the world. Worms eat bacteria on rotten fruits and plants. This is a very rich source of food for most of the year,” Kurt said. (1mm) long, which means that many worms can live in small spaces. Cutter said: “Because of these factors, we believe that they can grow into very large populations, which increases their genetic diversity.”

Read More: Trump says no to further media briefings on Coronavirus